Century XIX

Separador heráldico
Escudo de Castilla y León Libro abierto, hojas de plata, filo de oro, guardas de gules, tapas de sable.

Husenbeth, F. C.; 1882

Frederick Charles Husenbeth, «Emblems of saints: by which they are distinguished in works of art», with 2 appendices «On the treatment of the Sibyls in art» by William Marsh and «On sacred heraldry» by Edward Lushington Blackburne, 3th edition edited by Augustus Jessopp, printed by A. H. Goose and Co. for the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society, Norwich, 1882.


Bibliographical reference of century XIX.

Separador heráldico
Escudo de Castilla y León Libro abierto, hojas de plata, filo de oro, guardas de gules, tapas de sable.

Nisbet, A.; 1816

Alexander Nisbet, System of Heraldry, 1816, page 43

Alexander Nisbet, «System of Heraldry Speculative and Practical: With the True Art of Blazon», subtitle «according to the most approved heralds in Europe: illustrated with suitable examples of armoria figures, and achievements of the most considerable surnames and families in Scotland, together with historical and genealogical memorials relative thereto», printed by William Blackwood de Ediburgo and Rodwell and Martin of London, Edinburgh, 1816.


This is the edition I consult and the 1st edition of this book is [Nisbet, A.; 1722].

The illustration accompanying this bibliographic reference corresponds to page 43 of this edition of 1816.


Bibliographical reference of century XIX.

The author is Nisbet, Alexander.

Here are the articles quoting this reference:

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Separador heráldico
Escudo de Castilla y León Libro abierto, hojas de plata, filo de oro, guardas de gules, tapas de sable.

Parker, J. H.; 1847

John Henry Parker, «A Glossary of Terms Used in British heraldry, with a chronological table illustrative of its rise and progress», 360 pages with pictures, printed by J. Shrimpton, Oxford, 1847.


Author

John Henry Parker (1806-1884), the author of this book among others, was an English archaeologist, publisher, writer on architecture, member of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (CB), and father of James Parker (1832 or 1833–1912), editor and author of [Parker, J.; 1894; A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry], a renewed edition of this book. Can be read about the relationship between these two books of father and son in [Stock, E.; 1895; The Antiquary, Volume XXXI].

In some places it is written that its author is Henry Gough, but I do not find within this book the author Henry Gough. The error is due to a later print of this book, see [Parker, J.; Gough, H.; 1966].

Parts of this book

  • Preface, signed the 30th of November of 1846, pages I and II.
  • Bibliography, with 21 bibliographic references in the page III, with 24 bibliographic references, including [Nisbet, A.; 1722] and 4 rolls of arms in the page IV, and with 4 bibliographic references in the page V.
  • The page VI is empty.
  • A chronological table illustrative of the rise and progress of armory, especially in England (see also shield, badge and crown) prom page VII to page XXIII.
  • A list of all the abbats and priors of England who are known to have been mitred or to have sat in parliament subsequent to the beginning of the reign of Edward III, 2 pages XXIX and XXX,
  • Glossary of terms used in british heraldry by alphabetical order, begining with «abased or abaissé» and ending with «zule», from page 1 to page 330.
  • Addenda and corrigenda, from page 331 to 339.
  • Alphabetical index, from page 341 to 360.

Bibliographical reference of century XIX.

Classification: Dictionary and English language.

Author: Parker, James Henry.

Bibliographic reference mentioned in the following articles:

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Separador heráldico
Escudo de Castilla y León Libro abierto, hojas de plata, filo de oro, guardas de gules, tapas de sable.

Parker, J.; 1894

James Parker, «A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry, a New Edition with one Thousand Illustrations», XXVIII and 660 pages with pictures, edited by James Parker and Co., Oxford and London (at the 1st page), printed by James Parker and Co., Crown Yard (at page 660), Oxford, October of 1894.


Previous book and review

John Henry Parker, the father of James Parker, was also the editor and author of a previous book [Parker, J. H.; 1847; A Glossary of Terms Used in British heraldry]. James Parker, in the introduction of his book, writes about the innovations, updates and improvements he contemplates, which make it more a new book than a new edition of his father's.

A review and critics of this book can be readed in [Stock, E.; 1895; The Antiquary, Volume XXXI].

In some places it is written the name of Henry Gough as author of this book and, also, his father book, but I do not find within these books the author Henry Gough. The error is due to a later print of this book, see [Parker, J.; Gough, H.; 1966].

Bookplate and scanning process

The 6th of September of 2007, a copy of this book from the library of Harvard University was digitized by Google. This copy of the Harvard University has a bookplate with

  • a first text «Harvard College Library»,
  • the seal of Hardvard University with its coat of arms, and
  • a second text «From the bequest of Mary Osgood of Medford, Massachusetts».

This scanning of Google has errors mainly in the very first 8 pages, and its images are not well viewed in all digital reproductors, but this scanning was used for some digital editors for make new digital versions of this book, for example, [Parker, J.; 2010].

The last scanned page contains the loan record of this library, with stamps from the year 1976 to 2000.

Frontispiece and Oxford arms

This book contains a frontispiece with the coat of arms of Richard Willoughby, Esq. (Esquire), son and heir, ob. s. p. (obiit sine prole, died without issue~offspring~children, at least, without legitimate ones) 1471. The explanation of the arms and quarters of Richard Willoughby are at the pages 396, 397, 398 and 399, under the term «marshalling» arms.

On the page next to the frontispiece, under the full title of this book, there is an oval version of the coat of arms of the University of Oxford from the Schools Tower erected A.D. 1619, its blazon is «Azure, an open Book Argent, leathered Sable and Gules, garnished Or, charged with the motto Dominus Illuminatio Mea; between three open crowns Or, two and one».

Bibliographical references and dates


Bibliographical reference of century XIX.

Classification: Dictionary and English language.

The author is Parker, James.

Bibliographic reference mentioned in the following articles:

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Separador heráldico
Escudo de Castilla y León Libro abierto, hojas de plata, filo de oro, guardas de gules, tapas de sable.

Rylands, J. P.; 1882

Walkington, registered in The Visitation of Cheshire in the Year 1580

John Paul Rylands, «The Visitation of Cheshire in the Year 1580, Made by Robert Glover, Somerset Herald, for William Flower, Norroy King of Arms, with Numerous Additions and Continuations, Including those from The Visitation of Cheshire in the Year 1566, by the same Herald, with an Appendix Containing The Visitation of a Part of Cheshire in the Year 1533, William Fellows, Lancaster Herald, for Thomas Benolte, Clarenceux King Of Arms, And a Fragment of The Visitation of the City of Chester in the Year 1591, Made by Thomas Chaloner, Deputy to the Office Of Arms», edited by John Paul Rylands, F. S. A., published by The Harleian Society, London, 1882.


[Goldstraw, M. S. J.; 2013a] es una recreación a color de los escudos registrados en este libro.

El escudo que ilustra esta referencia bibliográfica es uno de los que se registran en este libro y corresponde al escudo de Tatton de Wythenshawe, con la diferencia que aquí no se ha incluido su timbre.


Bibliographical reference of century XIX.

Separador heráldico
Escudo de Castilla y León Libro abierto, hojas de plata, filo de oro, guardas de gules, tapas de sable.

Stock, E.; 1895

Elliot Stock, «The Antiquary, A Magazine Devoted to the Study of the Past», Volume XXXI, Published by Elliot Stock, London, 1895.

Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry

«The late Mr. John Henry Parker's name is so closely associated with quite a small library of admirable manuals on architecture, and with a number of other works on archaeology, all of which are well known, that it will be something of a surprise to many persons to learn that about fifty years ago», 1895 - 1847 = 48 years, «he published» [Parker, J. H.; 1847; Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry].

«The book, too, has been out of print so long that it has become almost forgotten».

Glossary of Terms used in Heraldry, a new book

«The new edition now published by his son, Mr. James Parker», [Parker, J.; 1894; Glossary of Terms used in Heraldry], «is practically, as he himself tells us, a new book, and the elaboration and care which have been bestowed upon it are as characteristic of this as they are of the other archaeological works, for which both father and son have been so honourably distinguished for more than half a century».

Illustrations

«Another well-known characteristic of the Messrs. Parker's books is the copious manner in which they are illustrated».

«The present volume fully maintains that reputation, and the neat little woodcuts, which occur in great profusion on nearly every other page, are often a great help in explaining in a practical manner the significance of a heraldic term».

«To anyone who is beginning the study of heraldry this will render the book of great value and usefulness; while others who know more or less of the science will not be disposed to regret the lavish manner in which explanatory illustrations are provided».

Critic, Chichester and Prester John

«So far as it is possible to judge there are very few, if any, inaccuracies in the book, although we are bound to express surprise in finding in such a work as this, the old fiction repeated, that the figure of our Saviour, in relation to the dedication of the cathedral to the Holy Trinity, on the arms of the See of Chichester is that of the mysterious being known as Prester John».

«We thought this absurd theory had been fully exploded long ago, and to find it perpetuated in a work like this is a little startling, to say the least».

The 3 main references in James Parker's book to Prester John the See of Chichester are the following:

  • About the Presbyter John, usually called Prester John: «this singular figure is represented as seated on a stone (described as a tombstone), and forms the insignia of the See of Chichester, the only instance in which the bearing occurs», [Parker, J.; 1894; page 476]. «The origin of the figure is obscure». «In 1180 the seal represented the Figure of Christ seated on a Tomb, with perhaps a symbolical reference to» the Book of Revelation i. 16, and v. 1, also called the Apocalypse of John the Apostle. «Early in the next century the mythical story of Prester John, a supposed King of central Asia, was current, a certain Franciscan monk, by name Carpini, who went out as a Missionary in 1206, having brought home or invented the story, and this being very popular was afterwards, perhaps, applied to the device».
  • About the blazon of the Bishopric of Chichester, he writes «Bishoprick»: «Azure, a Presbyter John hooded sitting on a tombstone, in his sinister hand a book open, his dexter hand extended with the two forefingers erect, all or; in his mouth a sword fessways gules, hilt and pommel or, the point to the sinister», [Parker, J.; 1894; at the end of the page 476].
  • About «tombstone» as an heraldic term, [Parker, J.; 1894; page 576] writes: «the seat of Prester John (q.v.)» ~ quod vide ~ which see «in the insignia of the See of Chichester, and of Saint Mary in those of the See of Lincoln», see also the term nimbus or «Cicle of Glory» at [Parker, J.; 1894; page 424], «is so called, though in neither case is it at all probable that the bearing is intended for such».

«It would be an interesting fact to ascertain exactly when and by whom», Elliot Stock asks himself, «the very wild idea of Prester John on the Chichester shield was first started».

Nowadays, the Diocese of Chichester, in its on-line explanation about its coat of arms, writes «The most common misconception, which was still being repeated in 1894», the Diocese does not cite directly James Parker's book, but cites its publishing year 1894, «was that the arms show Presbyter John sitting on a tombstone». «A letter circulated in Europe in about 1165 referred to the annual visit of Prester John and his army, complete with chariots and elephants, to the tomb of the prophet Daniel in Babylonia Deserta». «It was the imagery of this letter», about the Prester John and the tomb, «that seems to have become attached to» the coat of arms of the Diocese of Chichester with its human figure, nimbed, sitting in a tomb or an altar.

Conclusions

«As showing the thoroughness with which Mr. James Parker has done his work, we may mention that»:

  • «no less than 32 pages are taken up in describing the different heraldic forms and uses of the cross», [Parker, J.; 1894; from the page 149 to the beginning of the page 179] and with an internal index, dedicated exclusively to the cross, on [Parker, J.; 1894; pages 179 and 180].
  • «and 8 with the various forms of the crown», [Parker, J.; 1894; from the page 181 to the page 188].

«In every instance the subject dealt with is thoroughly worked out».

«Indeed, thoroughness may be said to be one of the special characteristics of this useful and welcome volume».

Elliot Stock, the reviewer

He was an English publisher and bibliophile, he born in 1838 and died in 1911. The publishing company that bore his name was in business from 1859 to 1939. The Antiquary magazine was published by his publishing company from December 1879 to 1915.


Bibliographical reference of century XIX.

Classification: Magazine and English language.

Author: Stock, Elliot.

Bibliographic reference mentioned in the following articles:

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Separador heráldico
Escudo de Castilla y León Libro abierto, hojas de plata, filo de oro, guardas de gules, tapas de sable.

Wade, W. C.; 1898

William Cecil Wade, «The symbolisms of heraldry or A treatise on the meanings and derivations of armorial bearings», 186 pages, 95 black and white pictures, Robert Holmes Collection, published by George Redway, London, 1898.


Although Romanticism sought the symbolism of the heraldic elements, I believe that the meaning of the elements of the coat of arms, if they have it, is provided by its creator or first bearer. In any case, the content of this symbolic book is the following:

William Cecil Wade, 1898, cover and pages 78-79 y 61
  • The origin of armorial bearings; page 11.
  • The symbolic side of heraldry; page 13.
  • Heraldic colours and metals; page 35.
  • The furs of heraldry; page 38.
  • The meaning of heraldic lines; page 40.
  • The symbolisms of the ordinaries; page 43.
  • The division lines of the shield; page 55.
  • The colours of the common charges not symbolical, chapter with 2 paragraphs only; page 57.
  • Symbolisms of the common charges; page 59.
  • Crowns, mitres, episcopal hats, etc.; page 138.
  • Examples of symbolisms of colours and armorial bearings; page 149.
  • Cadency and differencing; page 154.
  • Alphabetic index; page 162.

Bibliographical reference of century XIX.

Classification: Symbolism and English language.

The author is Wade, William Cecil.

Bibliographical reference mentioned in the following article:

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Dr. Antonio Salmerón y Cabañas,
,
Paseo de la Castellana 135, planta 7a,
28046 Madrid, España.